USMLE Made Ridiculously Simple

  created by Andreas Carl

USMLE Step 1 USMLE Step 2 USMLE Step 3 CSA Residency & Match
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My Philosophy:

  • Keep things simple.
  • Study the BASICS FIRST and learn them really well.
  • Find a study partner.

The Arts:

Andreas Carl

Andreas Carl

My Books:

My Book Contributions

Chapter 2: Physiology, In: Appleton&Lange’s Review for the USMLE Step 1, Second Edition, edited by T.K.Barton. Appleton&Lange, 1996.

Chapter 6: Physiology, In: Appleton&Lange’s Review for the USMLE Step 3, Second Edition, edited by S.L. Jacobs, Appleton&Lange, 1997.

Appleton&Lange’s Review of Physiology. Second Edition. Appleton&Lange, 1997.

My almost but not quite

Nobel Prize winning


    1. Siegel G, Bostanjoglo M, Thiel M, Adler A, Carl A, Stock G, Grote J; Membran-physiologische Mechanismen der Vasodilatation. In: Frühveränderungen bei der Atherogenese, edited by Betz E, pp.91-101, München, Bern, Wien, San Francisco: W.Zuckschwerdt Verlag 1987.
    2. Carl A; Linear Automata. Forth Dimensions X(2):23-24, 1988.
    3. Carl A, Sanders KM; Ca2+-activated K channels of canine colonic myocytes. Am.J.Physiol 257:C470-480, 1989.
    4. Cole WC, Carl A, Sanders KM; Muscarinic supression of Ca2+-dependent K current in colonic myocytes of the canine proximal colon. Am.J.Physiol 257:C481-487, 1989.
    5. Langton P, Ward S, Carl A, Norell M, Sanders KM; Spontaneous electrical activity of interstitiell cells of Cajal isolated from canine proximal colon. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. 86:7280-84, 1989.
    6. Sanders KM, Burke EP, Carl A, Cole WC, Langton P, Ward S; Mechanism of electrical rhythmicity in colonic smooth muscle: An hypothesis. In: Frontiers in smooth muscle research, pp.307-321, Alan R. Liss Inc. 1990.
    7. Siegel G, Carl A, Adler A, Stock G; Effect of the prostacyclin analogue Iloprost on K+ permeability in the smooth muscle cells of canine carotid artery. Eicosanoids 2:213-222, 1989.
    8. Carl A, Sanders KM; Measurement of single channel open probability with voltage ramps. J. of Neuroscience Methods, 33:157-163, 1990.
    9. Carl A, McHale NG, Publicover NG, Sanders KM; Participation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in electrical activity of canine gastric smooth muscle. J.Physiol.(Lond.) 429:205-221, 1990.
    10. Carl A; Na+- und K+-Fluxe an der Arteria Carotis des Hundes unter Einwirkung des Prostacyclin-Analogons Iloprost. Dissertation. Freie Universität Berlin, 1991.
    11. Carl A, Kenyon JL, Uemura D, Fusetani N, Sanders KM; Regulation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels by protein kinase A and phosphatase inhibitors. Am.J.Physiol. 261:C387-392, 1991.
    12. Thornbury KD, Ward SM, Dalziel HH, Carl A, Westfall DP, Sanders KM; Nitric oxide and nitrosocystin mimic non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic hyperpolarization in canine proximal colon. Am.J.Physiol. 261:G553-557, 1991.
    13. Gelband CH, Carl A, Post JM, Bowen SM, Ishikawa T, Keef KD, Sanders KM, Hume JR; Effect of cromakalim and lemakalim on whole-cell and single channel K+ currents in canine colonic, renal and coronary smooth muscle cells. In: Electrophysiology and Ion Channels of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Endothelial Cells, pp.125-138, edited by N.Sperelakis and H.Kuriyama. Elsevier 1991.
    14. Carl A, Bowen S, Gelband CH, Sanders KM, Hume JR; Cromakalim and lemakalim activate Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in canine colon. Pflügers Arch. 421:67-76, 1992.
    15. Sanders KM, Ward SM, Thornbury KD, Westfall DP, Dalziel HH, Carl A; Nitric oxide as a non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract. Jpn.J.Pharmacol.58 (Suppl.2):220-225, 1992.
    16. Thornbury KD, Ward SM, Dalziel HH, Carl A, Westfall DP, Sanders KM; Nitric oxide serves as the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurotransmitter in the canine proximal colon. In: Biology of Nitric Oxide, pp.298-301, Portland Press, London 1992.
    17. Carl A, Frey BW, Ward SM, Sanders KM, Kenyon JL; Inhibition of slow wave repolarization and Ca2+-activated K+ channels by quaternary ammonium ions. Am.J.Physiol. 264:C652-C631, 1993.
    18. Kitamura K, Lian Q, Carl A, Kuriyama H; S-nitrosocysteine, but not sodium nitroprusside, produces apamin-sensitive hyperpolarization in rat gastric fundus. Br.J.Pharmacol. 109:415-423, 1993.
    19. Hart PJ, Overturf KE, Russell SN, Carl A, Hume JR, Sanders KM, Horowitz B; Cloning and expression of a Kv1.2 delayed rectifier K+ channel from canine colonic smooth muscle. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci. USA. 90:9659-9663, 1993.
    20. Du C, Carl A, Smith TK, Khoyi MA, Sanders KM, Keef KD; Mechanism of cAMP induced hyperpolarization in canine colon. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Therap. 268(1):208-215, 1994
    21. Kapicka CL, Carl A, Hall ML, Percival AL, Frey BW, Kenyon JL; Comparison of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in artificial bilayer and patch clamp experiments., Am.J.Physiol. 266:C601-C610, 1994.
    22. Overturf KE, Russell SN, Carl A, Vogalis F, Hart PJ, Hume JR, Sanders KM, Horowitz B; Cloning and characterization of a KV1.5 delayed rectifier K+ channel expressed in vascular and visceral smooth muscles. Am.J.Physiol. 267:C1231-1238, 1994.
    23. Russel SN, Publicover NG, Hart PJ, Carl A, Hume JR, Sanders KM, Horowitz B; Block by 4-aminopyridine of a Kv1.2 delayed rectifier K+ current expressed in Xenopus oocytes, J.Physiol.(Lond.) 481(3): 571-584, 1994.
    24. Carl A, Bayguinov O, Shuttleworth CWR, Ward SM, Sanders KM; Role of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in electrical activity of longitudinal and circular muscle layers of canine colon. Am.J.Physiol. 268:C616-627,1995.
    25. Carl A; Multiple components of delayed rectifier K+ current in canine colonic smooth muscle. J.Physiol.(Lond.) 484(2):339-353,1995.
    26. Koh SD, Campbell JD, Carl A, Sanders KM; Activation of multiple potassium channels in smooth muscle cells by nitric oxide. J.Physiol.(Lond.) 489(3): 735-743, 1995.
    27. Carl A, Lee HK, Sanders KM. Regulation of ion channels in smooth muscles by calcium. (Invited Review). Am.J.Physiol. 271:C9-34, 1996.
    28. Bauer RJ, Carl A, Kapicka CL, Kenyon JL; Determination of channel open probabilities from multichannel data. J.Neuroscience Methods, 68:101-111, 1996.
    29. Koh SD, Sanders KM, Carl A; Regulation of smooth muscle delayed rectifier K+ channels by protein kinase A. Pflügers Arch. 432:401-412, 1996.
    30. Frey BW, Carl A, Publicover NG; Charybdotoxin block of Ca2+ -activated K+ channels in colonic muscle depends on membrane potential dynamics. Am.J.Physiol. 274:C673-680, 1998.

My email:

Andreas Carl, M.D., Ph.D.